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就業保持穩定,新職業不斷涌現

來源:chinadaily 編輯:Kelly ?  VIP免費外教試聽課 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

China's economy and society have undergone sea changes in the past seven decades, and so have people's occupations.

中國的經濟和社會在過去70年間經歷了翻天覆地的變化,人們的職業也經歷了巨變。
In the early years after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the majority of the population worked as farmers. At that time about 180 million people were employed, and only 8.3 percent of them worked in urban areas, data from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) showed.
在1949年中華人民共和國成立初期,中國大部分人口都是農民。國家統計局的數據顯示,當時約有1.8億就業人口,其中只有8.3%的人口在城鎮工作。
In 2018, the country's employed population surged to 780 million, with over 56 percent working in cities.
2018年,中國就業人口增加到7.8億,其中超56%在城市工作。
Given the huge size of the Chinese population and the challenges of transforming from a planned economy to a market economy capable of pursuing high-quality development, China has been largely successful in keeping employment stable over the past 70 years.
考慮到中國龐大的人口和從計劃經濟到追求高質量發展的市場經濟的轉變,過去70年中國在保持就業穩定這方面在很大程度上是成功的。
On top of that, China has seen constant improvement in its employment structure, with new jobs popping up as a result of an evolving economy.
除此以外,中國一直在不斷改善就業結構,新增就業機會也伴隨著經濟發展不斷涌現。
There was no standard classification for jobs in 1949. A popular saying of "360 professions" generalized the various occupations before 1999, when China released an official reference book on occupations.
1949年時,中國對職業沒有標準分類。1999年中國發布了《中國職業分類大典》,在這以前,“360行”就可以概括各行各業。
An updated version of the reference book was rolled out in 2015, with 526 manufacturing jobs such as open-hearth steelmaker becoming obsolete, while some 81 new service-related professions such as courier were included.
2015年中國頒布了新版《中國職業分類大典》,平爐煉鋼工等526種制造業的過時職業被取消,新增了快遞員等81個服務性職業。
The rising urban demand for services has attracted farmers like Chang Baohong to seek job opportunities in cities. The 34-year-old man is now a deliveryman working for the country's largest online food delivery-to-ticketing services platform Meituan Dianping, and he can deliver 50 orders per day with the help of smart apps.
城市對服務業需求的增長吸引了常寶紅(音)這樣的農民到城市來尋找工作機會。這名34歲的男性現在是國內最大外賣訂票網站美團點評的配送員,他借助智能手機應用每天可以配送50個訂單。

就業保持穩定,新職業不斷涌現.jpg

In 2018, around 46 percent of the employed people worked in the tertiary industry in China. "This is an indicator of China's transformation to a service-based economy," said Lai Youwei, head of Meituan Research Institute.

2018年,受雇于第三產業的人約占中國從業人員的46%。美團研究院院長來有為說:“這表明中國正在向服務經濟轉型。”
Unlike Chang, entrepreneurial Liao Zaijie, who calls himself a "new farmer," chose to seek his fortune in the country's rural areas.
和常寶紅不同,自稱為“新農民”的企業家廖再杰(音)選擇在中國農村地區尋找致富機會。
Encouraged by the country's mass innovation and entrepreneurship campaign, Liao decided in 2015 to return to Hubei province's countryside to start his own business by helping local farmers sell agricultural products through e-commerce platforms.
受到國家“大眾創業、萬眾創新”行動的鼓舞,2015年廖再杰決定回到湖北農村自主創業,幫助當地農民通過電子商務平臺出售農產品。
As of June this year, Liao's sales volume on Pinduoduo, a social e-commerce giant with a huge consumer base in rural areas and small cities, reached 65 million yuan (about 9.16 million US dollars).
截至今年六月,廖再杰在拼多多上的銷售額已達到6500萬元。拼多多是一個在農村地區和小城鎮擁有龐大消費者基礎的社交電商巨頭。
By the end of 2018, a total of 7.8 million people like Liao had returned to their rural hometowns to start businesses, promoting the application of new technologies, new varieties and expanding new markets, NBS data showed.
國家統計局的數據顯示,到2018年底,總共有780萬像廖再杰這樣的人回農村老家創業,促進了新技術的應用和多樣化發展,以及新市場的擴張。
To keep pace with economic and technological development, China added 13 new professions to the occupation dictionary in April, featuring a series of high-tech occupations including artificial intelligence technicians, Internet of Things technicians, cloud computing technicians, electronic sports specialists and unmanned aerial vehicle pilots.
為了和經濟技術發展保持同步,國家在今年四月發布了13個新增職業,其中包括人工智能工程技術人員、物聯網安裝調試員、云計算工程技術人員、電子競技運營師和無人機駕駛員等一系列高科技職業。
As the Chinese economy is shifting from high-speed growth to high-quality development, new jobs requiring new skills and knowledge have appeared in various industries, attracting a relatively stable number of workers, according to the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security.
人力資源和社會保障部表示,隨著中國經濟從高速發展向高質量發展轉變,各行各業涌現出需要新技能新知識的新職業,吸引了數量相對穩定的勞動力。

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