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2009年考研英語真題第3篇 Educating global workers

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The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely misunderstood by economists and politicians alike.

經濟學家、政治家們普遍誤解貧窮國家中正規教育與經濟發展之間的關系。

Progress in both area is undoubtedly necessary for the social, political and intellectual development of these and all other societies;

毫無疑問,在這兩個方面的進步對本國和其他國家的社會、政治、學術發展是非常必要的;

however, the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong.

但是,教育是促進貧窮國家經濟快速發展的重中之重的傳統觀點是錯誤的。

We are fortunate that is it, because new educational systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would require two or three generations.

我們慶幸這個觀念不對。因為創立新的教育體制,讓足夠多的人接受教育,從來推動經濟發展。這個過程是需要兩代或三代人來完成。

The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radical higher productivity and, as a result, radically higher standards of living.

一家研究機構的研究成果一再表明:全世界的工人都可以通過在職培訓,大幅度提高生產率,從而提高生活水平。

Ironically, the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States.

具有諷刺意味的是,這一觀點的首個證據出現在美國。

Not long ago, with the country entering a recessing and Japan at its pre-bubble peak, the U. S. workforce was derided as poorly educated and one of primary cause of the poor U. S. economic performance.

不久前,隨著美國經濟陷入衰退,日本正處于泡沫破滅前的高峰期,美國工人被嘲諷沒有受過良好教育。這被認為這是美國經濟不景氣的主要原因之一。

Japan was, and remains, the global leader in automotive-assembly productivity.

在全球,不管過去還是現在,日本一直是汽車組裝生產力的領袖。

Yet the research revealed that the U. S. factories of Honda Nissan, and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanese counterparts -- a result of the training that U. S. workers received on the job.

然而,研究表明豐田、尼桑和本田位于美國工廠的生產率大約是日本同行的95%,這是美國工人接受在職培訓的結果。

More recently, while examining housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate, non-English- speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry's work.

最近在進行住戶建設檢查時,研究人員發現:盡管房地產行業的工作非常復雜,但是在德克薩斯州的休斯頓,未受過教育,英語非母語的墨西哥工人總是能夠達到最佳的勞動生產率標準。

What is the real relationship between education and economic development?

教育與經濟發展之間的關系到底如何?

We have to suspect that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments don't force it.

我們不得不懷疑,即使政府不強迫發展教育,經濟持續增長也會促進教育事業的發展。

After all, that's how education got started.

畢竟,教育就是那樣開始的。

When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10, 000 years ago, they didn't have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food.

一萬年前當我們的祖先還在狩獵和采集野果時,除了尋找食物他們沒有時間想更多其它的東西。

Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things.

只有當人類能夠更高效地獲取食物時,才有時間做其它的事情。

As education improved, humanity's productivity potential increased as well.

隨著教育的進步,人類的生產潛力也增加了。

When the competitive environment pushed our ancestors to achieve that potential, they could in turn afford more education.

當競爭的環境推動我們的祖先實現這一潛力,他們又可以獲得更多的教育機會。

This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for the complex political systems required by advanced economic performance.

先進的經濟水平要求復雜的政治制度。越來越高的教育水平可能是復雜政治制度的必要的條件,但不是充分的條件。

Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education.

因此如果沒有政治改革,貧窮國家可能無法擺脫其貧困陷阱,而政治改革則只能靠更廣泛的正規教育實現。

A lack of formal education, however, doesn't constrain the ability of the developing world's workforce to substantially improve productivity for the forested future.

但是,正規教育的匱乏并未阻礙發展中國家勞動力在可預見的未來持續提高生產力。

On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn't developing more quickly there than it is.

相反,生產力提高受限解釋了為什么發展中國家的教育發展速度沒有生產力快。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
radically ['rædikəli]

想一想再看

adv. 根本地,完全地,過激地

 
primary ['praiməri]

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adj. 主要的,初期的,根本的,初等教育的

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contrary ['kɔntrəri]

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adj. 相反的,截然不同的
adv. 相反(

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social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社會的,社交的
n. 社交聚會

 
escape [is'keip]

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v. 逃跑,逃脫,避開
n. 逃跑,逃脫,(逃

 
consistently [kən'sistəntli]

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adj. 一致的,始終如一的

 
radical ['rædikəl]

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adj. 激進的,基本的,徹底的
n. 激進分

 
productivity [.prɔdʌk'tiviti]

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n. 生產率,生產能力

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fortunate ['fɔ:tʃənit]

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adj. 幸運的,僥幸的

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global ['gləubəl]

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adj. 全球性的,全世界的,球狀的,全局的

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